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MPPT Solar Charge Controller

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2023-08-25      Origin: Site


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What is MPPT Solar Charge Controller?

Article from Wikipedia:

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT), or sometimes just power point tracking (PPT), is a technique used with variable power sources to maximize energy extraction as conditions vary. The technique is most commonly used with photovoltaic (PV) solar systems, but can also be used with wind turbines, optical power transmission and thermophotovoltaics.

PV solar systems have varying relationships to inverter systems, external grids, battery banks, and other electrical loads. The central problem addressed by MPPT is that the efficiency of power transfer from the solar cell depends on the amount of available sunlight, shading, solar panel temperature and the load's electrical characteristics. As these conditions vary, the load characteristic (impedance) that gives the highest power transfer changes. The system is optimized when the load characteristic changes to keep power transfer at highest efficiency. This optimal load characteristic is called the maximum power point (MPP). MPPT is the process of adjusting the load characteristic as the conditions change. Circuits can be designed to present optimal loads to the photovoltaic cells and then convert the voltage, current, or frequency to suit other devices or systems.

Solar cells' non-linear relationship between temperature and total resistance can be analyzed based on the Current-voltage (I-V) curve and the power-voltage (P-V) curves. MPPT samples cell output and applies the proper resistance (load) to obtain maximum power. MPPT devices are typically integrated into an electric power converter system that provides voltage or current conversion, filtering, and regulation for driving various loads, including power grids, batteries, or motors. Solar inverters convert DC power to AC power and may incorporate MPPT.

The power at the MPP (Pmpp) is the product of the MPP voltage (Vmpp) and MPP current (Impp).

In general, the P-V curve of a partially shaded solar array can have multiple peaks, and some algorithms can get stuck in a local maximum rather than the global maximum of the curve.

Benefits or advantages of MPPT solar controller

Following are the benefits or advantages of MPPT solar controller:
➨It is more efficient compare to PWM solar charge controller.
➨It can optimize voltage differences and offers DC load optimization.
➨It is ideal for larger systems where solar panel output is substantially greater than battery voltage.
➨It offers more output and hence more capacity (Amp).

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